A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator used in nuclear physics and particle physics to accelerate charged particles, typically protons or electrons, to high energies. The device consists of two hollow, semicircular electrodes placed in a strong magnetic field. An electric field is applied between these electrodes, causing the charged particles to move in a spiral or circular path due to the magnetic field.

As the particles spiral outward, they gain kinetic energy and speed with each revolution. When they reach the desired energy level, they are extracted from the cyclotron and used for various applications, such as in medical facilities for cancer treatment (proton therapy), nuclear physics experiments, and in the production of radioactive isotopes for medical diagnostics. Cyclotrons are essential tools for studying the fundamental properties of particles and for practical applications in science and medicine.


  1. Particle Injection: Charged mini metal balls are injected into the central region of the cyclotron.
  2. Magnetic Field: A strong magnetic field is established within the cyclotron, causing the charged particles to move in a circular path due to the Lorenz force.
  3. MOSFET Switching: MOSFET switching circuits create alternating electric fields at specific points in the cyclotron’s path. These electric fields switch direction at precise intervals.
  4. Particle Acceleration: As the charged mini metal balls move within the cyclotron, the alternating electric fields accelerate them with each cycle, increasing their energy.
  5. Synchronization: The timing of the MOSFET switching is critical, ensuring that the electric field direction changes synchronously with the particles’ motion, so they continue to gain energy.
  6. Extraction: When the mini metal balls reach the desired energy level, they are extracted from the cyclotron and can be used for various applications.

This process continues in a cyclical manner, with the charged particles repeatedly accelerated and extracted at the desired energy levels for experiments or applications. The specific design and timing of the MOSFET switching circuits, magnetic field strength, and geometry of the cyclotron are crucial to its successful operation.